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  •  What is farming and agriculture?
      Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and       other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
  • Some Definitions
It is admitted that no definition can be exacting for everybody and for all purposes. Nevertheless, I find this elucidation on what is agriculture specially convenient where its coverage is limited to crop production (agronomy and horticulture) and livestock production even knowing that some definitions include fisheries, forestry, and other activities. Further, the science of agriculture is dynamic.
  • Some from AUTHORS

1. Agriculture is an enterprise or business, activity or practice. It is synonymous to farming.

2. The practice of agriculture is based on systematized body of knowledge (science) and requires skill (art).

3. Agriculture often involves the cultivation of the soil to grow plants and the raising of animals for human needs. The words “crops” and “livestock” are also used. However, both words are special or technical terms. “Crops” should clearly mean plants (with exceptions, as in mushroom) which are useful to man (read Agricultural Crops Classifications) while “livestock” applies to both domesticated animals and poultry. However, cultivation which essentially involves disturbing the soil does not apply to crop production systems using soil-less media, as in hydroponics.

4. Agriculture is practiced for the purpose of producing food and other human needs such as clothing, shelter, medicines, weapons, tools, ornaments, and indefinitely many more. It is likewise practiced as a business for economic gain. The ultimate purpose is essentially important in clarifying what is agriculture.

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INDIAN AGRICULTURE

  • How many farmers are there in India?
Estimates for total number of farmers in India, for 2011, accordingly range from 95.8 million (8%) to 263 million (22%) to 450 million (38%), out of a total population of over 1.2 billion. Others estimate the total number of farmers in India to be about 600 million (50% of total population).
  • What do they grow in India?
India is among the top three global producers of many crops, including wheat, rice, pulses, cotton, peanuts, fruits and vegetables. Worldwide, as of 2011, India had the largest herds of buffalo and cattle, is the largest producer of milk and has one of the largest and fastest growing poultry industries.
  • Which crop among the following has maximum area of cultivation in India?
Among cash crops, fibre crops are especially important. Jute accounts for the maximum areas. Odisha is the fourth largest producer of jute after west Bengal, Bihar and Assam. Rice and jute, compete with each other as they require almost similar soil and climatic conditions.
  • Which crop is shown on the largest area in India?
Even so, rice is the most cultivated crop in India. India is the world’s second-largest producer of rice, behind China. Rice was cultivated on an area of around 32.5 million hectares during the fiscal year 2002-2003.

India’s agriculture is composed of many crops, with the foremost food staples being rice and wheat. Indian farmers also grow pulses, potatoes, sugarcane, oilseeds, and such non-food items as cotton, tea, coffee, rubber, and jute (a glossy fiber used to make burlap and twine). India is a fisheries giant as well. A total catch of about 3 million metric tons annually ranks India among the world’s top 10 fishing nations. Despite the overwhelming size of the agricultural sector, however, yields per hectare of crops in India are generally low compared to international standards. Improper water management is another problem affecting India’s agriculture. At a time of increasing water shortages and environmental crises, for example, the rice crop in India is allocated disproportionately high amounts of water. One result of the inefficient use of water is that water tables in regions of rice cultivation, such as Punjab, are on the rise, while soil fertility is on the decline. Aggravating the agricultural situation is an ongoing Asian drought and inclement weather. Although during 2000-01 a monsoon with average rainfall had been expected, prospects of agricultural production during that period were not considered bright. This has partially been due to relatively unfavorable distribution of rainfall, leading to floods in certain parts of the country anddroughts in some others.

Despite the fact that agriculture accounts for as much as a quarter of the Indian economy and employs an estimated 60 percent of the labor force, it is considered highly inefficient, wasteful, and incapable of solving the hunger and malnutrition problems. Despite progress in this area, these problems have continued to frustrate India for decades. It is estimated that as much as one-fifth of the total agricultural output is lost due to inefficiencies in harvesting, transport, and storage of government-subsidized crops.

Read more: http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/India-AGRICULTURE.html#ixzz4KUghh3kW